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Image by Jonas Svidras at https://stocksnap.io/photo/intel-8008-LBYK1XTHFC.

Passing a variable by value vs. reference

In programming, a concept that usually creates a lot of confusion among those new to it is the concept of passing a variable by value, versus passing a variable by reference. The 2 examples below illustrate the difference between these two ways variables can be passed in Java:

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Why doesn't text-align center always work?

Why doesn’t text-align center work? A primer on block and inline elements in HTML and CSS

If you’re just starting your foray into web development, you’ll probably find that HTML and CSS have a variety of quirks that can make working with them somewhat frustrating for beginners. One of these quirks involves the text-align CSS attribute, as the attribute only applies its effects to certain kinds of HTML elements.

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Creating a bar and line graph in Microsoft Word

Creating a bar-line chart in Microsoft Word

Are you tearing your hair out trying to figure out how to create a bar-line chart (i.e. a combination of a bar chart and a line chart) in Microsoft Word? Look no further, we’ve got step-by-step instructions for you in this post, as well as an accompanying video guide.

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"Git" good

“Git” good Part 1 — Let’s “Git” the basics

Looking to learn Git on your own, but not sure about where to get started? This article will be a great starting point for you. It’s the first in a series of articles called “Git” good, and it’s designed to help anyone learn Git online in a simple, linear and accessible manner.

In this article, we will be going through the install process for Git and exploring its most basic functionalities.

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A formula for rounding number

A formula for rounding numbers

Most programming languages come with native functions that help us round our numbers, either upwards (i.e. ceiling operation), downwards (i.e. floor operation), or to the nearest whole (i.e. round operation). While this is convenient, we sometimes need a bit more than that — what if — for example — we want to round our numbers to the nearest 0.5, or the nearest 3rd?

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Exporting your Unity project as an APK

Exporting your Unity project as an APK (for Android)

Are you planning to create a Unity game for mobile devices? Wondering how you can export your game and install it as an app on Android? Look no further — here’s a step-by-step guide to exporting your game onto your Android device.

If you’re looking for a way to test your game as you’re making it, check out Unity Remote — it’s an Android app that mirrors Unity Editor’s Game screen when you are in Play Mode. Once you’ve installed it, we have a guide covering how to get Unity Remote working on your devices.

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PHP mail not delivering domain emails to external mail server

PHP mail not sending domain emails to external mail server

Recently, I’ve done some work for a client with an odd issue: the contact forms on their website (let’s call it client-website.com) — which delivered completed form enquiries using PHP’s mail() function — could not send emails through to email addresses containing their own domain.

This means that, if we were to set the form to deliver enquiries to an address like hello@client-website.com, the email would be completely dropped — you would neither find it in the junk or spam folders, nor find any trace of the email in their admin and mail logs. If we delivered the email to our own personal email addresses (e.g. personal@gmail.com), or to emails from another domain (e.g. mail@terresquall.com), then the email would go through (and skip right past the spam folder too).

For weeks, this problem confounded me, until now… and it’s actually a really simple fix.

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Adding virtual hosts on Bitnami Apache

Adding virtual hosts on Bitnami Apache

Over the weekend, I’ve spent a substantial chunk of time figuring out how to add a virtual host onto a client’s subdomain. In laymen’s terms, this means that:

  1. My client has a website hosted on a domain (which we shall call example.com, for confidentiality reasons)
  2. We want to build a web application on app.example.com, which will be entirely separate from example.com.
  3. To save on cost, we want to host app.example.com on the same server that example.com is using (i.e. create a virtual host on the web server).

This means that we have to configure our web server so that it will serve a different webroot depending on the domain it is being accessed from.

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Shallow vs. deep copying in Python

Shallow vs. deep copying in Python

If you’ve worked with Lists in Python before, you’ll quickly realise that they work differently from primitives like integers and strings. Consider the following:

a = "hello"
b = a
a = "world"
print(a) # Outputs world
print(b) # Outputs hello

Notice that changing the value of a does not change the value of b. This is called passing by value. In Python, Lists do not behave this way:

a = [2, 3, 4, 5]
b = a
a.append(6)
print(a) # Outputs [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
print(b) # Outputs [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]

In the above example, notice that changing the value of List a also changes the value of List b. This is because both a and b are referring to the same List, and this is called passing by reference.

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