Creating a Metroidvania (like Hollow Knight) — Part 3: Melee combat & Enemy AI Base Class

This article is a part of the series:
Creating a Metroidvania (like Hollow Knight) in Unity

21 April 2024: This article has been updated to correct some errors and missing information.
Here’s the list of changes and bugfixes for Part 3 of the Metroidvania Series.

Welcome to part 3 of our Metroidvania tutorial series, where we’ll be taking you on a journey through the development process of creating your own Metroidvania game, just like the widely popular Hollow Knight, in Unity!

video authored and edited by Matias Lee

Table of Contents:

  1. Introduction
  2. Organizing our code
  3. Creating the Attack
    1. Animating the Attack
    2. Activating the animations
    3. Creating the Attack Area Detection system
  4. Creating and Damaging Enemies
    1. Creating the Enemy
    2. Attacking the Enemy
    3. Creating a Slash Effect for the Attack
  5. Recoil
    1. Enemy Recoil
    2. Player Recoil
    3. Stopping the Recoil
  6. Enemy AI Base Class
    1. Chase Player
    2. Attack Player
  7. Conclusion

1. Introduction

In the previous parts, we created the movement and camera mechanics of the game. Now, we’ll be advancing into creating a melee combat system with recoil and an Enemy base class. Needless to say, a combat system is extremely important for Metroidvanias, creating an engaging play experience for the player.

Alright, let’s get straight into it!

2. Organizing our code

Having settled our core aspects of the PlayerController.cs, we’ll be creating more variables for the various future mechanics. To make sure we understand what our code does and to better sort through the code, we’ll add a few things:

  1. Set all unassigned variables to private to prevent other classes from unintentionally accessing them.
  2. Create comments for the variables to understand their use in the code.
  3. Move private float gravity; to "Vertical Movement Settings".
  4. Merge both canDash and dashed bools into one line: private bool canDash = true, dashed, then move the code to "Dash Settings".

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]


    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis;

    private float gravity;
    private bool canDash = true;
    private bool dashed;

    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

3. Creating the Attack

Firstly, let’s set up the attack animation so we’ll be able to clearly see if the attack function is being called.

a. Animating the Attack

Here are the steps to create and implement the attack animations:

  1. Create an animation clip and call it Player_Attack and Player_JumpAttack.
  2. Drag the sprites for the attack animation into the animator window and adjust it so that it looks good.
  3. Uncheck Loop time for the animations.
  4. Link the Player_Attack animation to Player_Idle and Player_Walk, and the Player_JumpAttack to Player_Jump.
  5. Uncheck Has Exit Time and change Transition Duration to 0 for the arrows leading towards the attack animations.
  6. Change the exit time to 1 for the arrows leading away from the attack animations.
  7. Add a trigger parameter and name it Attacking.
  8. Add the Attacking trigger to the arrows leading towards the attack animations.
Animator window link
Linking the attack animations

b. Activating the animations

With the attack animations set up, we’ll move to the PlayerController script to call the attack function. Firstly, create a bool attack to check if we are attacking or not. And create a [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack and private float timeSinceAttack. These will limit the rate of attack so the player can’t attack non-stop, it will also prevent a bug that will basically deal infinite damage to the enemy and infinite attack spam. 

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]


    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]
    
    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

Now, create a method Attack() then add it in Update(). In the method, add timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime, then, if attack and timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack, reset the timeSinceAttack back to 0. If we call the attack input and the time since we last attacked is more than the attack’s cooldown, we can attack again. Add in anim.SetTrigger("Attacking") in the Attack() method to play the attack animation.

To call the Attack() method, we’ll be setting the attack bool in GetInputs().

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;


    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    
    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");          
        }
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

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c. Creating the Attack Area Detection system

Next up, let’s create the actual attacking function. Add a section for attacking in the namespace. Then, Create 3 separate transforms, name them SideAttackTransform, UpAttackTransform and DownAttackTransform respectively. Create 3 Vector2s‘ and name them SideAttackArea, UpAttackArea and DownAttackArea respectively. The attackAreas will be cast from the attackTransforms to determine the area of attack.

Create an OnDrawGizmos to make it easier to see in the inspector.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");
        }     
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

To set our attackTransforms, create 3 empty game objects and set them to above, beside and below your player’s sprite respectively and name them to their corresponding attacks. In the Inspector, we’ll determine the size of the attackArea by inputting the X and Y values, the values that I’ll be using are 4.5 x 3.5 for the side and 3.5 x 4.5 for up and down. But you can experiment with whatever values you like.

AttackArea Settings
attackArea Settings

Now, we’ll begin on the attack function. Firstly, in the Unity editor, create an Attackable layer. Anything assigned to this layer can be attacked by the player.

Then, create a LayerMask attackableLayer in the PlayerController so we can assign the Attackable layer to it. Next, we’ll create a float yAxis which will serve as vertical directional input in our GetInputs(). Next up, create a method Hit() which takes two arguments: Transform _attackTransform and Vector2 _attackArea. We’ll use this method to handle attacks in all directions, and we’ll specify the appropriate _attackTransform and _attackArea when we call it. For instance, when we attack upward, we’ll use the upAttackTransform and upAttackArea.

In this method, we want to be able to hit multiple objects and sift out what is attackable and what isn’t, so well create a Collider2D[] objectsToHit.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");
        }
    }

    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

In Attack(), we’ll set the specific _attackArea to the sideAttackArea if there is no vertical input or if they are holding down S and are grounded. Set it to the upAttackArea if the player is holding W and it to downAttackArea if the player is holding down S and is not grounded. This is because we don’t want the player to attack downward if they are grounded.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
        health = maxHealth;
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea);
            }
        }
    }

    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

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4. Creating and Damaging Enemies

Now we’ll create an enemy and the damage enemy function.

a. Creating the Enemy

Here’s how we’ll create the enemy:

  1. Create a rectangle Game Object, and name it Enemy.
  2. Make it roughly the same height as the Player.
  3. Add a BoxCollider2D and a RigidBody2D to it which will give it collision and physics respectively
simple enemy
Creating the Enemy Game Object

Create a script called Enemy. Then, create a float health and in Update(), we’ll destroy the enemy GameObject if its health runs out. To determine how much health the enemy has and what happens if it’s attacked, create an EnemyHit() method and add an argument float _damageDone. In EnemyHit(), add health -= _damageDone.

Enemy.cs

public class Enemy : MonoBehaviour
{
    [SerializeField] float health;

    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        
    }
    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        if(health <= 0)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
    }

    public void EnemyHit(float _damageDone)
    {
        health -= _damageDone;
    }   
}

b. Attacking the Enemy

Now in the PlayerController, create a float damage. This will be the amount of damage the player will deal to the enemy.

In the Hit() method, we’ll create a List<Enemy> called hitEnemies to store all enemies that have been hit. Then we’ll iterate through the objectsToHit array to detect if there’s the Enemy class in the _attackArea using a for loop. If there is an Enemy class, deal damage to the enemy. To check if the enemy is already hit we’ll put an Add function to increase the list count to prevent multiple instances of damage. We use a for loop to avoid throwing a Null Reference Exception error in case there isn’t an enemy class detected.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }
    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

Remember to set the damage and the health of the enemy in the inspector before testing it out.

c. Creating a Slash Effect for the Attack

Alright, now let’s add a slash effect to the player attack to make it look nicer. The Sword Slashes Asset Pack we’ll use is from itch.io. We will be using the pure white slash wide, but feel free to use any of the slashes you wish.

Here are the steps to create the Slash Effect prefab:

  1. Create an animation clip for the slash and drag in the sprites to the keyframes.
  2. Rename this to Slash Effect and drag it into the prefabs folder.
  3. In the Slash Effect Prefab, add the DestroyAfterAnimation script.
  4. Recentre it’s transform position back to (0, 0, 0).

We add the DestroyAfterAnimation script so that we will avoid a bug that will instantiate many instances of the Slash Effect, and we recentre it back to (0, 0, 0) to avoid a bug that will cause the Slash Effect to not play at the desired location.

slash bug
If we don’t recentre the Slash Effect to 0, 0, 0.

In the PlayerController, well add a variable GameObject slashEffect which we’ll use to instantiate the slash effect. Create a method SlashEffectAtAngle() with three arguments: GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, and Transform _attackTransform. This will allow us to instantiate it at any angle we choose (up, side and down) and we’ll position it at the _attackTransform and then rotate it using the _effectAngle.

In the SlashEffectAtAngle() method, define _slashEffect. Then, we’ll modify the angle and stretch the Slash Effect to fit the corresponding attack area.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

In the Attack() method, we’ll add in the Slash Effect. For the attacking to the side, instantiating it will be fine as there is no change to its angle. However, for attacking upwards and downwards, we will use SlashEffectAtAngle() to change its angle respectively.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y); 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       
    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

Now in the Inspector, assign the Slash Effect prefab and test it out. 


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5. Recoil

Now, let’s add recoil to the enemy and to the player when we attack. The recoil will serve as additional feedback, giving the attack more weight.

a. Enemy Recoil

In the Enemy script, add a float recoilLength, recoilTimer, recoilFactor, add a bool isRecoiling and default it to false, then add a RigidBody2D rb. All these will be used to control and effect the recoil on the enemy.

Next, assign the RigidBody2D component in Start(). In the EnemyHit() method, add these additional arguments: Vector2 _hitDirection and float _hitForce. These will determine which direction the enemy will recoil in and how much force is applied to the enemy when it recoils respectively. Then, add force to the enemy if it’s not currently recoiling and set isRecoiling to true.

Finally, in void Update(), if isRecoiling is true, if recoilTimer is less than recoilLength, increase the recoilTimer. Else, reset isRecoiling to false and reset the recoilTimer back to 0. What this does is if the enemy hasn’t recoiled the full length, it will continue to recoil.

Enemy.cs

public class Enemy : MonoBehaviour
{
    [SerializeField] float health;
    [SerializeField] float recoilLength;
    [SerializeField] float recoilFactor;
    [SerializeField] bool isRecoiling = false;

    float recoilTimer;
    Rigidbody2D rb;

    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();
    }
    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        if(health <= 0)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        if(isRecoiling)
        {
            if(recoilTimer < recoilLength)
            {
                recoilTimer += Time.deltaTime;
            }
            else
            {
                isRecoiling = false;
                recoilTimer = 0;
            }
        }
    }

    public void EnemyHit(float _damageDone , Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        health -= _damageDone;
        if(!isRecoiling)
        {
            rb.AddForce(-_hitForce * recoilFactor * _hitDirection);
            isRecoiling = True;
        }
    }
}

At this point, an error should be thrown, if we move back to the PlayerController, we can see that the EnemyHit() here isn’t updated to mention the _hitDirection and _hitForce, so we’ll need to add that in. We’ll be using 100 as the _hitForce value for now.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

b. Player Recoil

Firstly, in the PlayerStateList, create a public bool recoilingX and recoilingY, and a bool lookingRight.

PlayerStateList.cs

public class PlayerStateList : MonoBehaviour
{
    public bool jumping = false;
    public bool dashing = false;
    public bool recoilingX, recoilingY;
    public bool lookingRight;
}

Now in the PlayerController, add a section for recoil in the namespace. Then, create 2 ints recoilXSteps and recoilYSteps and default both to 5. These will determine how far the player will recoil. Also, create 2 floats recoilXSpeed and recoilYSpeed to determine the speed and default both to 100. set the status of pState.lookingRight in Flip().

Afterwards, create a method Recoil(). In the function, set the player to recoil left if they’re facing right and vice versa for recoiling in the X axis. For recoiling in the Y axis, set the player to recoil upwards when they attack downwards and vice versa. Cancel the Y recoil if the player is grounded so that the player won’t cause any glitches like wall clipping. We will also reset the jump counter back to 0 when recoiling in the Y axis.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false; 
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
     void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

    } 
    
    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

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To activate the recoil, we’ll add a ref bool _recoilDir, and a float recoilStrength in the Hit() method which will serve as the direction of the recoil and how much force the recoil will be. Then if we hit anything in the attackable layer, we make _recoilDir = true so that the recoil will be effected in the respective directions.

We’ll need to update Hit() in the Attack() method as well. For side attack, add ref pState.recoilingX and recoilXSpeed, and for attacking up and down, add ref pState.recoilingY and recoilYSpeed. So the respective pState recoil bools will be activated, and thus, the Recoil() method will run at the respectively set speed.

We’ll also change the enemy’s _hitForce from 100 to _recoilStrength so it’s the same as the player.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea , ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed );
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea , ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed );
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea , ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed );
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea , ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength )
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

c. Stopping the Recoil

At this point, we have the recoil, but now we need to stop the recoil, otherwise, we’d recoil forever. 

Create 4 ints, stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled, recoilXSteps and recoilYSteps. These will control how far the player has and has to recoil. Next up, create a method StopRecoilX(), set stepsXRecoiled to 0, resetting how far the player has recoiled back to 0, and pState.recoilingX to false. Do the same for stopping recoil in the Y axis. These will stop the recoil in their respective axes.

Next, in the Recoil() method, we’ll stop the recoil if the stepsRecoiled are more than the recoilSteps, otherwise, continue to recoil and increase the stepsRecoiled value. Also, call StopRecoilY() when the player is grounded so they won’t clip through the ground. Then add Recoil() to the Update() method.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
     [SerializeField] private int recoilXSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils horizontally for
    [SerializeField] private int recoilYSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils vertically for 

    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil

     private int stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled; //the no. of steps recoiled horizontally and verticall 
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
        Recoil();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea, ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

         //stop recoil
        if(pState.recoilingX && stepsXRecoiled < recoilXSteps)
        {
            stepsXRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilX();
        }
        if (pState.recoilingY && stepsYRecoiled < recoilYSteps)
        {
            stepsYRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }

        if(Grounded())
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        } 
    }
    void StopRecoilX()
    {
        stepsXRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingX = false;
    }
    void StopRecoilY()
    {
        stepsYRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingY = false;
    } 

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

6. Enemy AI Base Class

We want multiple enemy types in our game, so we’ll make this Enemy class a base class for all the enemy types to reference, this allows all the enemies to have the same basic building blocks, and we can customize each of them as we see fit.

Firstly, we change all the variables we have to protected. A protected variable allows its subclasses to gain access to it whereas a private variable doesn’t. Let’s also change all the methods to virtual. virtual voids can be overridden in the subclasses, allowing them to be more flexible but retaining the ability to use the same variables as the base class. We’ll then add a new protected float speed as well.

Enemy.cs

public class Enemy : MonoBehaviour
{
    [SerializeField] protected float health;
    [SerializeField] protected float recoilLength;
    [SerializeField] protected float recoilFactor;
    [SerializeField] protected bool isRecoiling = false;

    [SerializeField] protected float speed;

    protected float recoilTimer;
    protected Rigidbody2D rb;

    // Start is called before the first frame update
    protected virtual void Start()
    {
        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();
    }
    // Update is called once per frame
    protected virtual void Update()
    {
        if(health <= 0)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        if(isRecoiling)
        {
            if(recoilTimer < recoilLength)
            {
                recoilTimer += Time.deltaTime;
            }
            else
            {
                isRecoiling = false;
                recoilTimer = 0;
            }
        }
    }

    public virtual void EnemyHit(float _damageDone, Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        health -= _damageDone;
        if(!isRecoiling)
        {
            rb.AddForce(-_hitForce * recoilFactor * _hitDirection);
            isRecoiling = True;
        }
    }
}

a. Chase Player

As we are making multiple types of enemies with different movement characteristics, we’ll leave the Enemy script as it is now, and create a new script. The first enemy type we’ll be creating is a zombie, so just name it Zombie.

Firstly, let’s change the MonoBehaviour to Enemy so it inherits all the Enemy methods and variables. We’ll create a protected override void for all the current methods and add its base in it so it still runs the base method from the Enemy class. Set its gravity to 12 so that it sticks to the ground as well.

Zombie.cs

public class Zombie : MonoBehaviour Enemy
{
    // Start is called before the first frame update
    protected override void Start()
    {
        base.Start();
        rb.gravityScale = 12f;
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    protected override void Update()
    {
        base.Update();
    }
    public override void EnemyHit(float _damageDone, Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        base.EnemyHit(_damageDone, _hitDirection, _hitForce);
    }
}

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Now, in Update(), let’s add the chase player function when the enemy is not recoiling. We only want the chase to work when the enemy is not recoiling so that the chase doesn’t affect the recoil.

Zombie.cs

public class Zombie : Enemy
{
    // Start is called before the first frame update
    protected override void Start()
    {
        base.Start();
        rb.gravityScale = 12f;
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    protected override void Update()
    {
        base.Update();
        
        if(!isRecoiling)
        {
            transform.position = Vector2.MoveTowards
                (transform.position, new Vector2(PlayerController.Instance.transform.position.x, transform.position.y), speed * Time.deltaTime);
        }
    }
    public override void EnemyHit(float _damageDone, Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        base.EnemyHit(_damageDone, _hitDirection, _hitForce);
    }
}

Remove the Enemy class from the cube and add the Zombie script instead before testing it out. Set the speed to 10.

b. Attack Player

Ok now let’s add an Attack Player function. First things first, create some health for the player. In the PlayerController, add a public int health and maxHealth. health is the current health of the player, whereas maxHealth is the maximum health the player has at the moment. Set the health to maxHealth in Start().

Then, create a method ClampHealth() so the health can’t go above the maximum or minimum. Create a void TakeDamage() that takes an argument: float _damage. Inside we’ll decrease the health by _damage.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private int recoilXSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils horizontally for
    [SerializeField] private int recoilYSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils vertically for

    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil

    private int stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled; //the no. of steps recoiled horizontally and verticall
    [Space(5)]

    
    [Header("Health Settings")]
    public int health;
    public int maxHealth;
    [Space(5)]

    private PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
        
        health = maxHealth;
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
        Recoil();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea, ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

        //stop recoil
        if(pState.recoilingX && stepsXRecoiled < recoilXSteps)
        {
            stepsXRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilX();
        }
        if (pState.recoilingY && stepsYRecoiled < recoilYSteps)
        {
            stepsYRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }

        if(Grounded())
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }
    }
    void StopRecoilX()
    {
        stepsXRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingX = false;
    }
    void StopRecoilY()
    {
        stepsYRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingY = false;
    }
    
    public void TakeDamage(float _damage)
    {
        health -= Mathf.RoundToInt(_damage);
    }

    void ClampHealth()
    {
        health = Mathf.Clamp(health, 0, maxHealth);
        if (onHealthChangedCallback != null)
            onHealthChangedCallback.Invoke();
    }

    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

Next, go to the Enemy cube and make the current collider slightly shorter and thinner, then well add another BoxCollider2D to it, make this a Trigger. This will detect if the player is touching the enemy and attack the player if it is.

enemy collision
Give the Enemy cube a Trigger Collider

In the Enemy script, add a protected float damage. Then a protected virtual void Attack(). Here we’ll add in the damage player function. To call this Attack() method, we’ll create a protected virtual void OnTriggerStay2D(Collider2d _other) which will detect if the player is in the trigger collider, and if they are, attack the player.

Enemy.cs

public class Enemy : MonoBehaviour
{
    [SerializeField] protected float health;
    [SerializeField] protected float recoilLength;
    [SerializeField] protected float recoilFactor;
    [SerializeField] protected bool isRecoiling = false;

    [SerializeField] protected float speed;

    
    [SerializeField] protected float damage;

    protected float recoilTimer;
    protected Rigidbody2D rb;

    // Start is called before the first frame update
    protected virtual void Start()
    {
        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();
    }
    // Update is called once per frame
    protected virtual void Update()
    {
        if(health <= 0)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        if(isRecoiling)
        {
            if(recoilTimer < recoilLength)
            {
                recoilTimer += Time.deltaTime;
            }
            else
            {
                isRecoiling = false;
                recoilTimer = 0;
            }
        }
    }

    public virtual void EnemyHit(float _damageDone, Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        health -= _damageDone;
        if(!isRecoiling)
        {
            rb.AddForce(-_hitForce * recoilFactor * _hitDirection);
            isRecoiling = True;
        }
    }
    
    protected void OnTriggerStay2D(Collider2D _other)
    {
        if(_other.CompareTag("Player") && !PlayerController.Instance.pState.invincible)
        {
            Attack();
        }
    }
    protected virtual void Attack()
    {
        PlayerController.Instance.TakeDamage(damage);
    }
    
}

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Update 14 December 2023: Remember also that you need to assign the Player tag to the Player GameObject! Otherwise the enemy won’t be able to deal damage to the player.

View post on imgur.com

At this point, the attack technically works, but the enemy will be doing infinite damage to the player as it’ll run every frame. We only want the player to take damage once instead of every frame. So, In the PlayerStateList, well add a bool invincible.

PlayerStateList.cs

public class PlayerStateList : MonoBehaviour
{
    public bool jumping = false;
    public bool dashing = false;
    public bool recoilingX, recoilingY;
    public bool lookingRight;  
    public bool invincible;
}

We also need to change the protection level of the PlayerStateList to public in the PlayerController so that we can access the PlayerStateList variables in the enemy scripts.

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private int recoilXSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils horizontally for
    [SerializeField] private int recoilYSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils vertically for

    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil

    private int stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled; //the no. of steps recoiled horizontally and verticall
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Health Settings")]
    public int health;
    public int maxHealth;
    [Space(5)]

    
    private [HideInInspector] public PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
        health = maxHealth;
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
        Recoil();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea, ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

        //stop recoil
        if(pState.recoilingX && stepsXRecoiled < recoilXSteps)
        {
            stepsXRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilX();
        }
        if (pState.recoilingY && stepsYRecoiled < recoilYSteps)
        {
            stepsYRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }

        if(Grounded())
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }
    }
    void StopRecoilX()
    {
        stepsXRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingX = false;
    }
    void StopRecoilY()
    {
        stepsYRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingY = false;
    }
    public void TakeDamage(float _damage)
    {
        health -= Mathf.RoundToInt(_damage);
    }

    void ClampHealth()
    {
        health = Mathf.Clamp(health, 0, maxHealth);
        if (onHealthChangedCallback != null)
            onHealthChangedCallback.Invoke();
    }
    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

In the enemy Attack() method, we’ll make it possible to damage the player only if they’re not invincible(we’ll be setting invincible to true immediately after the player is attacked so infinite damage isn’t done).

In the PlayerController, create an IEnumerator StopTakingDamage() to handle what happens after the player is attacked. And then we’ll call the Coroutine in TakeDamage().

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private int recoilXSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils horizontally for
    [SerializeField] private int recoilYSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils vertically for

    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil

    private int stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled; //the no. of steps recoiled horizontally and verticall
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Health Settings")]
    public int health;
    public int maxHealth;
    [Space(5)]

    [HideInInspector] public PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
        health = maxHealth;
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
        Recoil();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea, ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

        //stop recoil
        if(pState.recoilingX && stepsXRecoiled < recoilXSteps)
        {
            stepsXRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilX();
        }
        if (pState.recoilingY && stepsYRecoiled < recoilYSteps)
        {
            stepsYRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }

        if(Grounded())
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }
    }
    void StopRecoilX()
    {
        stepsXRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingX = false;
    }
    void StopRecoilY()
    {
        stepsYRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingY = false;
    }

    public void TakeDamage(float _damage)
    {
        health -= Mathf.RoundToInt(_damage);
        
        StartCoroutine(StopTakingDamage());
    }

    
    IEnumerator StopTakingDamage()
    {
        pState.invincible = true;
        ClampHealth();
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);
        pState.invincible = false;
    }

    void ClampHealth()
    {
        health = Mathf.Clamp(health, 0, maxHealth);
        if (onHealthChangedCallback != null)
            onHealthChangedCallback.Invoke();
    }
    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

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Back in Unity, we’ll create a take damage animation to show the player they are taking damage:

  1. Create an Animation Clip and call it Player_Hurt.
  2. Uncheck the animation’s Loop Time.
  3. Link it from Any State and to idle, so it can be called from any state and after it has played, it’ll transition back to idle.
  4. Create a trigger TakeDamage and add it to the arrows leading towards the Player_Hurt animation.
hurt animator
Link the Player_Hurt animation and create a trigger Attacking.

Back in the PlayerController, we’ll trigger the Player_Hurt animation immediately after the player becomes invincible. 

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private int recoilXSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils horizontally for
    [SerializeField] private int recoilYSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils vertically for

    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil

    private int stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled; //the no. of steps recoiled horizontally and verticall
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Health Settings")]
    public int health;
    public int maxHealth;
    [Space(5)]

    [HideInInspector] public PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
        health = maxHealth;
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
        Recoil();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea, ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

        //stop recoil
        if(pState.recoilingX && stepsXRecoiled < recoilXSteps)
        {
            stepsXRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilX();
        }
        if (pState.recoilingY && stepsYRecoiled < recoilYSteps)
        {
            stepsYRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }

        if(Grounded())
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }
    }
    void StopRecoilX()
    {
        stepsXRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingX = false;
    }
    void StopRecoilY()
    {
        stepsYRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingY = false;
    }
    public void TakeDamage(float _damage)
    {
        health -= Mathf.RoundToInt(_damage);
        StartCoroutine(StopTakingDamage());
    }
    IEnumerator StopTakingDamage()
    {
        pState.invincible = true;      
        anim.SetTrigger("TakeDamage");
        ClampHealth();
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);
        pState.invincible = false;
    }
    void ClampHealth()
    {
        health = Mathf.Clamp(health, 0, maxHealth);
        if (onHealthChangedCallback != null)
            onHealthChangedCallback.Invoke();
    }
    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

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7. Conclusion

And that’s all I have for you in this part. In the next part, I’ll be covering the manna and spell-casting system. Thank you for reading till the end and I hope you’ve enjoyed the article. You can also download the project files of what we’ve done so far.

If you enjoyed this article and would like to support us, please consider becoming a Patron. As a Patron, you’ll gain access to project files for our tutorials and receive exclusive posts on our blog. Your support means a lot to us, as it helps us to sustain our content creation efforts. Currently, we’re earning only 20 cents on every dollar we invest in creating content, so your patronage would go a long way in helping us to continue making high-quality tutorials.

If you feel that you’ve encountered an issue while following this tutorial you can check if it relates to any of the common issues experienced in this post. If you find that you have a different or unique problem, please create a forum post here for further assistance on the matter.

Here are the final end results of all scripts we have worked with today:

PlayerController.cs

public class PlayerController : MonoBehaviour
{
    [Header("Horizontal Movement Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private float walkSpeed = 1; //sets the players movement speed on the ground
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Vertical Movement Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float jumpForce = 45f; //sets how hight the player can jump

    private int jumpBufferCounter = 0; //stores the jump button input
    [SerializeField] private int jumpBufferFrames; //sets the max amount of frames the jump buffer input is stored

    private float coyoteTimeCounter = 0; //stores the Grounded() bool
    [SerializeField] private float coyoteTime; //sets the max amount of frames the Grounded() bool is stored

    private int airJumpCounter = 0; //keeps track of how many times the player has jumped in the air
    [SerializeField] private int maxAirJumps; //the max no. of air jumps

    private float gravity; //stores the gravity scale at start
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Ground Check Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform groundCheckPoint; //point at which ground check happens
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckY = 0.2f; //how far down from ground chekc point is Grounded() checked
    [SerializeField] private float groundCheckX = 0.5f; //how far horizontally from ground chekc point to the edge of the player is
    [SerializeField] private LayerMask whatIsGround; //sets the ground layer
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Dash Settings")]
    [SerializeField] private float dashSpeed; //speed of the dash
    [SerializeField] private float dashTime; //amount of time spent dashing
    [SerializeField] private float dashCooldown; //amount of time between dashes
    [SerializeField] GameObject dashEffect;
    private bool canDash = true, dashed;
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Attack Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private Transform SideAttackTransform; //the middle of the side attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 SideAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform UpAttackTransform; //the middle of the up attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 UpAttackArea; //how large the area of side attack is

    [SerializeField] private Transform DownAttackTransform; //the middle of the down attack area
    [SerializeField] private Vector2 DownAttackArea; //how large the area of down attack is

    [SerializeField] private LayerMask attackableLayer; //the layer the player can attack and recoil off of

    [SerializeField] private float timeBetweenAttack;
    private float timeSinceAttack;

    [SerializeField] private float damage; //the damage the player does to an enemy

    [SerializeField] private GameObject slashEffect; //the effect of the slashs
    [Space(5)]



    [Header("Recoil Settings:")]
    [SerializeField] private int recoilXSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils horizontally for
    [SerializeField] private int recoilYSteps = 5; //how many FixedUpdates() the player recoils vertically for

    [SerializeField] private float recoilXSpeed = 100; //the speed of horizontal recoil
    [SerializeField] private float recoilYSpeed = 100; //the speed of vertical recoil

    private int stepsXRecoiled, stepsYRecoiled; //the no. of steps recoiled horizontally and verticall
    [Space(5)]

    [Header("Health Settings")]
    public int health;
    public int maxHealth;
    [Space(5)]

    [HideInInspector] public PlayerStateList pState;
    private Animator anim;
    private Rigidbody2D rb;

    //Input Variables
    private float xAxis, yAxis;
    private bool attack = false;


    //creates a singleton of the PlayerController
    public static PlayerController Instance;

    private void Awake()
    {
        if(Instance != null && Instance != this)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        else
        {
            Instance = this;
        }
        health = maxHealth;
    }


    // Start is called before the first frame update
    void Start()
    {
        pState = GetComponent<PlayerStateList>();

        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();

        anim = GetComponent<Animator>();

        gravity = rb.gravityScale;
    }

    private void OnDrawGizmos()
    {
        Gizmos.color = Color.red;
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(SideAttackTransform.position, SideAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(UpAttackTransform.position, UpAttackArea);
        Gizmos.DrawWireCube(DownAttackTransform.position, DownAttackArea);
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    void Update()
    {
        GetInputs();
        UpdateJumpVariables();

        if (pState.dashing) return;
        Flip();
        Move();
        Jump();
        StartDash();
        Attack();
        Recoil();
    }

    void GetInputs()
    {
        xAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Horizontal");
        yAxis = Input.GetAxisRaw("Vertical");
        attack = Input.GetMouseButtonDown(0);
    }

    void Flip()
    {
        if (xAxis < 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(-1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = false;
        }
        else if (xAxis > 0)
        {
            transform.localScale = new Vector2(1, transform.localScale.y);
            pState.lookingRight = true; 
        }
    }

    private void Move()
    {
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(walkSpeed * xAxis, rb.velocity.y);
        anim.SetBool("Walking", rb.velocity.x != 0 && Grounded());
    }

    void StartDash()
    {
        if(Input.GetButtonDown("Dash") && canDash && !dashed)
        {
            StartCoroutine(Dash());
            dashed = true;
        }

        if (Grounded())
        {
            dashed = false;
        }
    }

    IEnumerator Dash()
    {
        canDash = false;
        pState.dashing = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("Dashing");
        rb.gravityScale = 0;
        rb.velocity = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x * dashSpeed, 0);
        if (Grounded()) Instantiate(dashEffect, transform);
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashTime);
        rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        pState.dashing = false;
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(dashCooldown);
        canDash = true;
    }

    void Attack()
    {
        timeSinceAttack += Time.deltaTime;
        if(attack && timeSinceAttack >= timeBetweenAttack)
        {
            timeSinceAttack = 0;
            anim.SetTrigger("Attacking");

            if(yAxis == 0 || yAxis < 0 && Grounded())
            {
                Hit(SideAttackTransform, SideAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingX, recoilXSpeed);
                Instantiate(slashEffect, SideAttackTransform);
            }
            else if(yAxis > 0)
            {
                Hit(UpAttackTransform, UpAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, 80, UpAttackTransform);
            }
            else if (yAxis < 0 && !Grounded())
            {
                Hit(DownAttackTransform, DownAttackArea, ref pState.recoilingY, recoilYSpeed);
                SlashEffectAtAngle(slashEffect, -90, DownAttackTransform);
            }
        }
       

    }
    void Hit(Transform _attackTransform, Vector2 _attackArea, ref bool _recoilDir, float _recoilStrength)
    {
        Collider2D[] objectsToHit = Physics2D.OverlapBoxAll(_attackTransform.position, _attackArea, 0, attackableLayer);
        List<Enemy> hitEnemies = new List<Enemy>();

         if(objectsToHit.Length > 0)
        {
            _recoilDir = true;
        } 
        for(int i = 0; i < objectsToHit.Length; i++)
        {
            Enemy e = objectsToHit[i].GetComponent<Enemy>();
            if(e && !hitEnemies.Contains(e))
            {
                e.EnemyHit(damage, (transform.position - objectsToHit[i].transform.position).normalized, _recoilStrength);
                hitEnemies.Add(e);
            }
        }
    }
    void SlashEffectAtAngle(GameObject _slashEffect, int _effectAngle, Transform _attackTransform)
    {
        _slashEffect = Instantiate(_slashEffect, _attackTransform);
        _slashEffect.transform.eulerAngles = new Vector3(0, 0, _effectAngle);
        _slashEffect.transform.localScale = new Vector2(transform.localScale.x, transform.localScale.y);
    }
    void Recoil()
    {
        if(pState.recoilingX)
        {
            if(pState.lookingRight)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(-recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(recoilXSpeed, 0);
            }
        }

        if(pState.recoilingY)
        {
            rb.gravityScale = 0;
            if (yAxis < 0)
            {                
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, recoilYSpeed);
            }
            else
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, -recoilYSpeed);
            }
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            rb.gravityScale = gravity;
        }

        //stop recoil
        if(pState.recoilingX && stepsXRecoiled < recoilXSteps)
        {
            stepsXRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilX();
        }
        if (pState.recoilingY && stepsYRecoiled < recoilYSteps)
        {
            stepsYRecoiled++;
        }
        else
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }

        if(Grounded())
        {
            StopRecoilY();
        }
    }
    void StopRecoilX()
    {
        stepsXRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingX = false;
    }
    void StopRecoilY()
    {
        stepsYRecoiled = 0;
        pState.recoilingY = false;
    }
    public void TakeDamage(float _damage)
    {
        health -= Mathf.RoundToInt(_damage);
        StartCoroutine(StopTakingDamage());
    }
    IEnumerator StopTakingDamage()
    {
        pState.invincible = true;
        anim.SetTrigger("TakeDamage");
        ClampHealth();
        yield return new WaitForSeconds(1f);
        pState.invincible = false;
    }
    void ClampHealth()
    {
        health = Mathf.Clamp(health, 0, maxHealth);
        if (onHealthChangedCallback != null)
            onHealthChangedCallback.Invoke();
    }
    public bool Grounded()
    {
        if (Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position, Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround) 
            || Physics2D.Raycast(groundCheckPoint.position + new Vector3(-groundCheckX, 0, 0), Vector2.down, groundCheckY, whatIsGround))
        {
            return true;
        }
        else
        {
            return false;
        }
    }

    void Jump()
    {

        if (!pState.jumping)
        {
            if (jumpBufferCounter > 0 && coyoteTimeCounter > 0)
            {
                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);

                pState.jumping = true;
            }
            else if(!Grounded() && airJumpCounter < maxAirJumps && Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
            {
                pState.jumping = true;

                airJumpCounter++;

                rb.velocity = new Vector3(rb.velocity.x, jumpForce);
            }
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonUp("Jump") && rb.velocity.y > 0)
        {
            rb.velocity = new Vector2(rb.velocity.x, 0);

            pState.jumping = false;
        }

        anim.SetBool("Jumping", !Grounded());
    }

    void UpdateJumpVariables()
    {
        if (Grounded())
        {
            pState.jumping = false;
            coyoteTimeCounter = coyoteTime;
            airJumpCounter = 0;
        }
        else
        {
            coyoteTimeCounter -= Time.deltaTime;
        }

        if (Input.GetButtonDown("Jump"))
        {
            jumpBufferCounter = jumpBufferFrames;
        }
        else
        {
            jumpBufferCounter--;
        }
    }
}

PlayerStateList.cs

public class PlayerStateList : MonoBehaviour
{
    public bool jumping = false;
    public bool dashing = false;
    public bool recoilingX, recoilingY;
    public bool lookingRight;
    public bool invincible;
}

Enemy.cs

public class Enemy : MonoBehaviour
{
    [SerializeField] protected float health;
    [SerializeField] protected float recoilLength;
    [SerializeField] protected float recoilFactor;
    [SerializeField] protected bool isRecoiling = false;

    [SerializeField] protected float speed;

    [SerializeField] protected float damage;

    protected float recoilTimer;
    protected Rigidbody2D rb;

    // Start is called before the first frame update
    protected virtual void Start()
    {
        rb = GetComponent<Rigidbody2D>();
    }
    // Update is called once per frame
    protected virtual void Update()
    {
        if(health <= 0)
        {
            Destroy(gameObject);
        }
        if(isRecoiling)
        {
            if(recoilTimer < recoilLength)
            {
                recoilTimer += Time.deltaTime;
            }
            else
            {
                isRecoiling = false;
                recoilTimer = 0;
            }
        }
    }

    public virtual void EnemyHit(float _damageDone, Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        health -= _damageDone;
        if(!isRecoiling)
        {
            rb.AddForce(-_hitForce * recoilFactor * _hitDirection);
            isRecoiling = True;
        }
    }
    protected void OnTriggerStay2D(Collider2D _other)
    {
        if(_other.CompareTag("Player") && !PlayerController.Instance.pState.invincible)
        {
            Attack();
        }
    }
    protected virtual void Attack()
    {
        PlayerController.Instance.TakeDamage(damage);
    }
    
}

Zombie.cs

public class Zombie : Enemy
{
    // Start is called before the first frame update
    protected override void Start()
    {
        base.Start();
        rb.gravityScale = 12f;
    }

    // Update is called once per frame
    protected override void Update()
    {
        base.Update();
        if(!isRecoiling)
        {
            transform.position = Vector2.MoveTowards
                (transform.position, new Vector2(PlayerController.Instance.transform.position.x, transform.position.y),
                speed * Time.deltaTime);
        }
    }
    public override void EnemyHit(float _damageDone, Vector2 _hitDirection, float _hitForce)
    {
        base.EnemyHit(_damageDone, _hitDirection, _hitForce);
    }

}

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